Saturday, May 31, 2008


Philip Emeagwali (born in Nigeria)
"A Father of the Internet"

- He developed the world's fastest computer of the time in 1989. The computation at 3.1 billion calculations per second increasing the speed of a massively parallel computer to as much as 1,000 times faster than a main frame computer and 1,000,000 times faster than a personal computer.
-Problems once thought unsolvable were able to be solved.
-His computer solved one of the United Stated 20 most difficult computing problems.
-His computer can aid in forecasting the weather, predicting global warming, and extracting oil more productively.
-In 1974 he formulated a theoretical HyperBall International Network--as he called it--connecting 64,000 computers to forecast the weather. This led CNN to dub him, "A Father of the Internet," because it was his formula that "led to computer scientists comprehending the capabilities of supercomputers and the practical applications of creating a system that allowed multiple computers to communicate."

Friday, May 30, 2008


-George Washington Carver saved the South from an economic crises and possible famine18 by inventing more than three hundred uses for the peanut, over one hundred uses from the sweet potato, around 75 uses from the pecan, and many more from Georgia clay; The new products from those soil-enriching plants allowed Carver to convince Southern farmers to rotate their crops instead of relying entirely on cotton--which was destroying soil and consequently plantations across the region.19
-Southern farmers were soon making more money from their peanut crops than cotton or tobacco.20
-Due to the enriching qualities of the peanut, sweet potato, and pecan the South's cotton and tobacco crops were the best they had ever seen.21
-In 1938 alone the peanut had become a 200 million dollar industry.22 If Carver had not been around there is no telling what misery Southerners--in a cotton reliant world--would have suffered, especially during the Great Depression.
-Carver's inventions allowed small-time farmers, white and black, the dignity and opportunity to own their own farms for the first time. Because cotton was only profitable when produced on a large-scale small farmers were forced to sharecrop--give a certain amount of their production to a rich landowner before selling their crops on the open market. Sharecropping often amounted to de facto slavery for whites and blacks. Carver liberated those people from that oppressive system.23
-Thomas Edison offered Carver $100,000 a year--around one million dollars by today's standards--and unlimited laboratory facilities to work with him. Henry Ford, a close personal friend of Carver, made a similar offer. Carver declined because he felt teaching black students at the Tuskegee Institute was more important.24
-Some of the more widespread consumer goods Carver created from agriculture included: synthetic rubber, soaps, dyes, paper, ink, paint, cream, buttermilk, instant coffee, face powder, butter, shampoo, vinegar, wood stains, flour, starch, tapioca, mucilage, insulating board, rugs, cordage, and paving blocks for highways.25

Thursday, May 29, 2008



He Helped Bring Electric Light into our Homes

-After Edison received a patent for the first "successful" electric light bulb hundreds of improvements were made by many inventors within a decade. Lewis Latimer invented a light bulb that burnt evenly every time by a process called manufacturing carbons. Before that process the filament often quickly broke or bent, would start on fire, or the light bulb would shatter. His light bulb cost only pennies to replace.
-He crafted the blueprints for Alexander Graham Bell's Telephone.
-He became Edison's law expert in court--protecting Edison from patent infringements--saving him millions of dollars.
-He wrote the book, Incandescent Electric Lighting: A Practical Description of the Edison System, which became known as the electrical bible.
-He was the supervisor of North America's first electrical plants and streetlights, which were installed in New York City and Philadelphia.
-As an employee of the United States Electric Lighting Company he made improvementsperhaps many improvements to the light bulb that the company, not Latimer, received credit for. That was common practice.
-He was an original member of the Edison Pioneers.

Tuesday, May 27, 2008



I know sometimes you readers are probably saying we need to relax and have fun. Well, today the devil got into the computer and I just can't tell it what to do. So we will go with the flow and say jealousy was INVENTED by...... what ARE YOU THINKING? Don't you have a little jealous bone in your body? Know anyone who has NEVER BEEN JEALOUS? I bet you don't!

So, who invented jealousy? Well...... hate to say it, guys, but you MEN DID! You do things that just get under our skin and make us jealous. Now, most men love to know that we are jealous and will do too many things to get us to that point. HOWEVER, there are a FEW MEN who don't like jealous women. TOUGH! EVERY WOMAN HAS A JEALOUS BONE. Some will hide it, some will throw it out every single moment of the day and night and some have yet to realize they have it. Bottom dollar, you just have to take us as we are or WHATEVER!

I am a very jealous person. I don't plan to hide it and I don't plan to change in a hurry. I am having too much fun now. Maybe I will write a poem on my poetry page one day about jealousy. I think it is the topic for more conversation too, so keep tune to my women's page: for an opinion essay on JEALOUSY coming soon! This is the beginning of too much fun!
Peace and have a little JEALOUSY today! It may just keep the doctor away and stress, too!

Sunday, May 25, 2008


They Changed Our World

Granville T. Woods 1856-1910
"The Greatest Electrician in the World"

- In 1887 the national newspaper, American Catholic Tribune, declared Woods, "The greatest electrician in the world."1
-In 1886 The Cincinnati Sun--a white newspaper--predicted that Woods would become "Edison's successor," as America's greatest inventor.2
- He developed an improved system of overhead electrical wires for trains. The electrical wire system replaced the expensive, inefficient, and highly pollutant steam-driven engines in many areas.3
-He invented an electric rail system that provided electricity to power a railroad. He made numerous improvements to it throughout his career. The process is widely used in subways.4
-He invented an improved telephone transmitter, which allowed longer distant calls and a clearer reception.5
-He invented an electric telegraph system that allowed messages to be sent to and from moving trains. This devise revolutionized train safety.6
-The devise also allowed multiple messages to be sent over the same line7 without interference. One newspaper exclaimed. "200 operators may use a single wire at the same time."
-He invented an electronically heated egg incubator, which could handle 50,000 eggs at a time.8
-In 1896 he invented a device that controlled the electric current going through the generator to the machine, which reduced energy consumption. 9
-He invented the "telegraphy" which allowed regular people to send oral messages over telegraphs, whereas before one had to be an experienced telegraph operator and familiar with Morse Code in order to send messages.10 Alexander Graham Bells company purchased the invention.
-He invented an improved electric brake for trains.11
-He was offered a consulting job by Edison, which he turned down because he wanted to remain independent.
-Many serious illnesses--including small pox, kidney disease, and liver disease--in the prime of his career critically curtailed his success and shortened his life. Furthermore, his electric rail drawings (perhaps his greatest invention) were stolen and successfully marketed, which caused him to spend a lot of time and money in court (the man who stole his drawings ended up in jail and was disbarred). These setbacks disallowed Woods from reaching the greatness of becoming Edison's Successor as some had envisioned.

Saturday, May 24, 2008


Louis Braille


Louis Braille is famous because he invented the special alphabet by which blind people can read. He became blind in an accident when he was four years of age, but overcame his disability to become one of the most famous people who ever lived in France.
The Braille Alphabet.
Louis was born near Paris in 1809. Louis Braille's father was a shoemaker and Louis often watched him at work. One day, he crept into his father's shop when his father was not looking.
Louis picked up a sharp, pointed tool called an awl. It was used to make holes in leather, so that shoes could be sewn with a needle and thread. Louis thought it would be good fun to try to make some shoes. As he bent over the leather and set to work, the awl slipped. It jabbed into his eye and destroyed it. The injury to his eye became infected . His good eye was infected too, and he lost sight in both eyes. Louis was only 4 years old.
Luois went to school with his friends, but it soon became obvious that he could not learn much at school because he could not read and write. This was a problem as in those days he would have had to become a beggar like all people who were disabled or who had no jobs. He was lucky though, since he was sent to one of the first schools in the world for the blind in Paris.
The conditions at Louis' school were very hard. The school was cold and damp. Students were beaten and given very little to eat. However, Louis was taught skills such as weaving cane for baskets and chairs. Each week the teacher would take the boys out for a walk, tied to each other on a long piece of rope so that they would not get lost. Louis was taught to read by feeling regular letters of the alphabet which were raised on the paper. He was not taught how to write.
One day something happened that changed the boys' lives forever. In 1821 a soldier named Charles Barbier came to visit the school. He bought with him a system which he had invented called 'night writing'. 'Night writing' had originally been designed so that soldiers could pass instructions along trenches at night without having to talk and give their positions away. It consisted of twelve raised dots which could be combined to represent different sounds. Unfortunately it proved to be too difficult for soldiers to learn, so the army rejected it .
The young Louis Braille quickly realised how useful this system of raised dots could be, providing he could make it more simple to learn. Over the next few months he experimented with different systems until he found an ideal one using six dots. He continued to work on the scheme for several years after, developing separate codes for maths and music.
In 1827 the first book in braille was published. Even so the new system did not catch on immediately. Sighted people did not understand how useful braille could be and one head teacher at the school even banned the children from learning it.
Fortunately this seemed to have the effect of encouraging the children even more and they took to learning it in secret. Eventually even sighted people began to realise the benefits of the new system. Not only could people with impaired vision read braille but they could also write it for themselves using a simple stylus to make the dots. For the first time they began to be truly independent and to take control of their own lives.
Louis Braille eventually became a teacher in the school where he had been a student. He was admired and respected by his pupils but, unfortunately, he did not live to see his system widely adopted. He had always been plagued by ill health and in 1852, at the age of 43, he died from tuberculosis.
For a while it seemed as if people would forgetr his system. Fortunately a few key people had realised the importance of his invention. In 1868 a group of four blind men, led by Dr Thomas Armitage , founded an association which grew to become the Royal National Institute for the Blind, the largest publisher of braille in Europe and Britain's largest organisation for people with impaired vision.
By 1990 braille was being used in almost every country in the world and had been adapted to almost every known language, from Albanian to Zulu. In France itself, Louis Braille's achievement was finally recognised by the state. In 1952 his body was moved to Paris where it was buried in the Pantheon, the home of France's national heroes.
Source: RNIB.

Friday, May 23, 2008



Carl von Linde, German engineer whose invention of a continuous process of liquefying gases in large quantities formed a basis for the modern technology of refrigeration. Refrigeration is chiefly used to store foodstuffs at low temperatures, thus inhibiting the destructive action of bacteria, yeast, and mold.

refrigerator in 1876
noun / re·frig·er·a·tor

A refrigerator (often shortened to fridge) and/or freezer is an electrical appliance that uses refrigeration to help preserve food.
In 1877, Carl von Linde obtained a patent for his refrigerator from the German Imperial Patent Office727,650 (US) issued May 12, 1903 for Linde oxygen process 728,173 (US) issued May 12, 1903 for Apparatus for process

Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde
Modern prototype. First practical. Entrepreneur.
June 11, 1842 in Berndorf, Germany
November 16, 1934 in Munich, Germany
Milestones:BC1000 The Chinese cut and stored ice500 Egyptians and Indians made ice on cold nights by setting water out in earthenware pots AD1700 In England, servants collected ice in the winter and put it into icehouses for use in the summer1720 Dr. William Cullen, a Scotsman, studied the evaporation of liquids in a vacuum1805 Oliver Evans of Pennsylvania, compressed ether machine, the machine is never built1820 Michael Faraday, a Londoner, liquified ammonia to cause cooling1834 Jacob Perkins, ether vapour compression cycle, Ice Making Machine1844 James Harrison of Australia invents compressed ether machine1850 Edmond Carre of France, invents an absorption process machine1852 William Thomson & James Prescott cooling increases in proportion to the pressure difference 1855 Dr. John Gorrie builds compression refrigeration system based on Faraday's experiments.1856 James Harrison commissioned by a brewery to build a machine that cooled beer.1859 Ferdinand Carre of France, developed the first ammonia/water refrigeration machine1871 Carl von Linde of Germany published an essay on improved refrigeration techniques1873 Carl von Linde first practical and portable compressor refrigeration machine was built in Munich1874 Raoul Pictet of Switzerland, a compressor system using sulfur dioxide instead of ammonia1876 Carl von Linde, early models he used methyl ether, but changed to an ammonia cycle1878 von Linde starts Lindes Eismaschinen AG, (Society for Lindes Ice Machines), now Linde AG1881 Edmund J. Copeland and Arnold H. Gross start Leonard Refrigerator Company1894 Linde developed a new method (Linde technique) for the liquefaction of large quantities of air.1894 Linde AG installs refrigerator at the Guinness brewery in Dublin, Ireland1895 Carl von Linde produced large amounts of liquid air using the Thomson-Joule effect1901 Patent # 665,814 issued January 10, for a Refridgeator (Ice Box) invented by Henry Trost.1911 General Electric company unveiled a refrigerator invented by a French monk. Abbe Audiffren1913 Fred W. Wolf Jr.of the Domelre Company (DOMestic ELectric REfrigerator)1914 Leonard Refrigerator Company renamed Electro-Automatic Refrigerating Company1915 Alfred Mellowes starts Guardian Frigerato to build first self-container refrigerator for home use1916 Servel models compressors were generally driven by motors located in the basement 1916 Henry Joy of Packard Motor Car Co. purchased the Fred W. Wolf refrigerator rights 1918 Guardian Frigerato purchased by General Motors and renamed Frigidaire1918 Electro-Automatic Refrigerating Company renamed Kelvinator1920 there were some 200 different refrigerator models on the market. 1922 Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters introduce absorption process refrigerator1923 Kelvinator held 80 percent of the market for electric refrigerators1923 AB Arctic.begins production of refrigerators based on Platen-Munter's invention1925 Electrolux purchases AB Arctic and launches the "D-fridge" on the world market1925 Steel and porcelain cabinets began appearing in the mid-20s1927 first refrigerator to see widespread use was the General Electric "Monitor-Top" refrigerator. 1930 first built-in refrigerator is launched by Electrolux1931 Dupont produced commercial quantities of R-12, trademarked as Freon1931 the first air-cooled refrigerator introduced by Electrolux1932 Gibson, then owned by Frank Gibson, manufactured its own line of refrigerators.1934 an innovation, the Shelvador refrigerator, was introduced by the Crosley Radio Corporation1936 Albert Henne synthesizes refrigerant R-134a1937 more than 2 million Americans owned refrigerators.1939 refrigerator with one section for frozen food and a second for chilled food, introduced by G. E.1946 Mass production of modern refrigerators didn't get started until after World War II. 1947 GE two-door refrigerator-freezer combination 1955 80% of American homes now have refrigerators2005 A domestic refrigerator is present in 99.5% of American homesrefrigerator, fridge, fridgerator, refrigeration, Carl Linde, Carl von Linde, william cullen, oliver evans, fred wolf, linde ag, William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, James Prescott Joule, invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts.

Thursday, May 22, 2008


The birth of the modern packaging industry occurred in 1810 when two inventors, Auguste de Heine and Peter Durand, took out patents on iron and tin containers, called cans, for preserving foods (Canning). During the 19th and early 20th centuries, advances in container fabrication resulted in development of most of the standard metal and paper containers in use today. The development of mechanical printing processes, photoengraving, and process color printing also made it possible to decorate the containers.

In 1810 Peter Durand of England patented the use of tin-coated iron cans instead of bottles, and by 1820 he was supplying canned food to the Royal Navy in large quantities.

Tuesday, May 20, 2008


Baron Karl Drais von Sauerbronn on his Laufmashine

The German Baron Karl Drais von Sauerbronn invented the "Laufmaschine" or "Running Machine", a type of pre-bicycle. The steerable Laufmaschine was made entirely of wood and had no pedals; a rider would push his/her feet against the ground to make the machine go forward. Sauerbronn's bicycle was first exhibited in Paris on April 6, 1818. The celerifere was another similar early bicycle precursor invented in 1790 by Frenchmen, Comte Mede de Sivrac, however, it had no steering. It is also know as the Dandy Horse.

Have a great day,
Brenda A. Ysaguirre

Monday, May 19, 2008


The Cuatro

It was from its inception, like the steelband, an instrument of freedom; for the cuatro, as Jose Hernandez, folklore music teacher at the Venezuelan Embassy's Cultural Institute explains, it was invented in the early nineteenth century in Venezuela, quite spontaneously, after the liberation from Spain.The new music had emerged in Simon Bolivar's homeland and the instrument on which it was played was equally new/the cuatro. Perhaps there was a need for a simpler instrument, one cheaper to make, suggest Hernandez, and easier to play.Since then the cuatro has become Venezuela's national instrument, lending its distinctively high and tinny sound to every style of music there: joropo, castillan, bambuco, golpe, polo, galeron, merengue. Some cuatros, without losing their characteristic voice, have even added another two strings?the additional ones being paired with but an octave higher than the two bass strings.Usually, the back and face of the cuatro are made of pine and the sides of cedar. Because the instrument is small, it requires a soft, light wood shaved very thin to bend around the sharp curves of the box. This makes the instrument light and fragile, and possessing a disposable aura about it.The frets separating the notes used to be made of bamboo, and the strings of porcupine or cat gut, but now it's steel frets, like those on the guitar, and nylon strings. And factories in Venezuela make hundreds of these instruments a day, each one selling for around 800Bs ($TT80), and in Cumana alone there are over a dozen such assembly lines. But some go for 20,000Bs, the elaborately decorated concert instruments whose wood is better cured and whose frets are accurately placed. A craftsman might make four of these in a day and put his name on one.The most gifted cuatro maker in Trinidad, Louis Jules, died in October, ending a family tradition going back three generations. He marked the frets with a stick which his father had measured out and passed down to him, for accurately-placed frets are one of the most important features of a good cuatro. When the frets are out by the smallest degree, perhaps because the bridge has shifted slightly, perhaps because the frets just weren't placed exactly right in the first place, then the lower chords will be out of tune. Bandleader Syl Dopson uses a Venezuelan cuatro to play in public, keeping his Jules (made of purple heart and mahogany) safely at home.With only four strings, the cuatro can't give you the extended chords of a guitar. Furthermore, because its neck has to be short, it can only accommodate 14 frets; a guitar having at least 18, which further restricts its tonal range. Desmond Waithe, music teacher and steelband arranger, doesn't think this limits the musical capacity of the instrument, though. "You could get three octaves of a chord," he argues, "and you don't really need more than that".Waithe, who arranges for the T&TEC bands?Powerstars, Motown and, in Tobago, Eastside?does so with a cuatro. "It has chords, not like a flute, for instance, so I could get anything on it," he says. "I could go through chords and get melodic lines for all the instruments on the side, or vice versa." The cuatro's strings are tuned naturally in the key of D Major to A, D, F sharp and B. The first three follow the same progression as a guitar's third, fourth and fifth strings, but the last string differs. The cuatro's low B is very different from a guitar's high E, the former sounding like a full stop whereas the latter is a question mark.Dopson, whose band uses two cuatros to play in a wide range of styles?jazz, Spanish, bolero, calypso?suggests why the cuatro's strings are tuned in this up and down fashion. "I prefer it that way," he says, "because that last B string, if you tuned it to an E, it would be too high, too pronounced."Actually, one of Dopson's cuatros, because there are two in his band, is tuned like a ukulele, with the first string an octave higher. This way the two cuatristas harmonise rather than merely increase the volume. Munro, on the other hand, uses the more important alternative mode of tuning his instrument: that is, like the bottom four strings of a guitar. This is necessary for finger-picking and classical playing. It means, however, that you can strum only the top three strings.The traditional A-D-F sharp-B tuning is especially for the traditional way the cuatro is played, that is, strumming. "We use it for rhythm," says Dopson. "There's a bass and a shak shak too, but we use the two cuatros to hold the rhythm and give it liveliness."Calypso was originally accompanied by string bands of cuatros, guitars, violins and shak shaks, and in such an ensemble the cuatro is a better rhythm instrument than a guitar because it is louder, more boisterous, and perhaps that's why it was born in the New World whose music has such definite African syncopation.Not only does it have a higher, more showy pitch than a guitar when used as a rhythm instrument but, for strumming purposes, because of the soft nylon or cat gut strings it's also easier on the fingers and thus more responsive. "Holding your thumb and forefinger together you move your wrist quickly," explains Waithe, "or use all your fingers for a rolling effect". Such control is more difficult with a plectrum or "pick", which the guitar's metal strings require.Using your fingers also facilitates the whipping and slashing effect popular in Venezuela. "You use your nails to hit the strings so they whistle," explains Munro. "If you hit the correct spots you get the harmonics coming into play and the string chimes an octave higher."Such an extension of the cuatro's repertoire only began in the 1950s in Venezuela. Now, Munro, one of its greatest exponents, has carried it beyond what even the Venezuelans believed possible. This entails tuning and playing it like a guitar, but having only four strings to work with. Furthermore, unlike the virtuosos down on the Main, Munro tunes his cuatro a tone lower than a guitar; G-C-E-A. Normal cuatros can't go so low down to the G: the strings being relatively slack to make the deep notes, they make a slapping rubber-band sound. Hence his need for a top-of-the-line instrument.No music is written for the cuatro, so you have to transcribe guitar music into a different key. if you're playing low down on the fret board, you have to do so as you would a violin?without frets.But the results have been stupendous, as anyone who saw Munro at the last Pan Jazz festival would testify. There he improvised with the Rudy Smith Quartet, following the other players all the way down the fret to the edge of the hole in his instrument, making a long overdue marriage of pan and cuatro. In so doing he showed that the cuatro is indeed a fairly recent instrument now discovering its voice, and strangely enough its not surprising that a Trinidadian should be the one to show the instrument what it can do.

Sunday, May 18, 2008


The first electric motors - Michael Faraday, 1821
From the Quarterly Journal of Science, Vol XII, 1821

Faraday Motor from the collection1830's

As is so often the case with invention, the credit for development of the electric motor belongs to more than one individual. It was through a process of development and discovery beginning with Hans Oersted's discovery of electromagnetism in 1820 and involving additional work by William Sturgeon, Joseph Henry, Andre Marie Ampere, Michael Faraday, Thomas Davenport and a few others.

Using a broad definition of "motor" as meaning any apparatus that converts electrical energy into motion, most sources cite Faraday as developing the first electric motors, in 1821. They were useful as demonstration devices, but that is about all, and most people wouldn't recognize them as anything resembling a modern electric motor. There are several Faraday motors in the collection.

The motors were constructed of a metal wire suspended in a cup of mercury (See illustration at right). Protruding up from the bottom of the cup was a permanent magnet. In the left cup the magnet was attached to the bottom with a piece of thread and left free to move, while the metal wire was immobile. On the right side, the magnet was held immobile and the suspended wire was free to move.

When current from a Volta pile was applied to the wire, the circuit was completed via the mercury ( a good conductor of electricity) and the resulting current flowing through the wire produced a magnetic field. The electromagnetic field interacted with the existing magnetic field from the permanent magnet, causing rotation of the magnet on the left, or of the wire on the right.

Saturday, May 17, 2008


The first patented roller skate was introduced in the year 1760 invented by a Belgian man named John Joseph Merlin. However, his invention did not become very popular among the general population. It wasn't until 1863 when James Pimpton from Massachusetts invented the "rocking" skate, an improvement that afforded the ability to turn, allowing skaters to turn easily around corners, curves, etc. This invention opened the door for the masses to enjoy roller skating.

Friday, May 16, 2008



If this was your daughter you would forward it. Missing 3 year Old Girl - You never know who knows whom.

Racharel Strong (father) - 404-357-1881

Simona Strong (mother) - 404-313-4255

Tiesa Locklear (aunt) - 678-234-4902

Tramesa Locklear (aunt) 678-480-1635

Ursala Williams (aunt) 678-362-5246

Thursday, May 15, 2008


Man has created and moulded a world where light and darkness are as common as happiness and sorrow. (Brenda A. Ysaguirre)

1809 - Humphry Davy, an English chemist, invented the first electric light. Davy connected two wires to a battery and attached a charcoal strip betwween the other ends of the wires. The charged carbon glowed making the first arc lamp.

1820 - Warren De la Rue enclosed a platinum coil in an evacuated tube and passed an electric current through it. His lamp design was worked but the cost of the precious metal platinum made this an impossible invention for wide-spread use.

1835 - James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated constant electric lighting system using a prototype lightbulb.

1850 - Edward Shepard invented an electrical incandescent arc lamp using a charcoal filament. Joseph Wilson Swan started working with carbonized paper filaments the same year.

1854 - Henricg Globel, a German watchmaker, invented the first true lightbulb. He used a carbonized bamboo filament placed inside a glass bulb.

1875 - Herman Sprengel invented the mercury vacuum pump making it possible to develop a practical electric light bulb. Making a really good vacuum inside the bulb possible.

1875 - Henry Woodward and Matthew Evans patented a lightbulb.

1878 - Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (1828-1914), an English physicist, was the first person to invent a practical and longer-lasting electic lightbulb (13.5 hours). Swan used a carbon fiber filament derived from cotton.

1879 - Thomas Alva Edison invented a carbon filament that burned for forty hours. Edison placed his filament in an oxygenless bulb. (Edison evolved his designs for the lightbulb based on the 1875 patent he purchased from inventors, Henry Woodward and Matthew Evans.)

1880 - Edison continued to improved his lightbulb until it could last for over 1200 hours using a bamboo-derived filament.

1903 - Willis Whitnew invented a filament that would not make the inside of a lightbulb turn dark. It was a metal-coated carbon filament (a predecessor to the tungsten filament).

1906 - The General Electric Company were the first to patent a method of making tungsten filaments for use in incandesent lightbulbs. The filaments were costly.

1910 - William David Coolidge (1873-1975) invented an improved method of making tungsten filaments. The tungsten filament outlasted all other types of filaments and Coolidge made the costs practical.

1925 - The first frosted lightbulbs were produced.

1991 - Philips invented a lightbulb that lasts 60,000 hours. The bulb uses magnetic induction.

Tuesday, May 13, 2008



In 1928, bubble gum was invented by a man named Walter E. Diemer. Here's what Walter Diemer, the inventor himself, said about it just a year or two before he died: "It was an accident." "I was doing something else," Mr. Diemer explained, "and ended up with something with bubbles." And history took one giant pop forward. What Mr. Diemer was supposed to be doing, back in 1928, was working as an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Company in Philadelphia; what he wound up doing in his spare time was playing around with new gum recipes. But this latest brew of Walter Diemer's was -- unexpectedly, crucially -- different. It was less sticky than regular chewing gum. It also stretched more easily. Walter Diemer, 23 years old, saw the bubbles. He saw the possibilities. One day he carried a five-pound glop of the stuff to a grocery store; it sold out in a single afternoon.
Before long, the folks at Fleer were marketing Diemer's creation and Diemer himself was teaching cheeky salesmen to blow bubbles, to demonstrate exactly what made this gum different from all other gums. The only food coloring in the factory was pink. Walter used it. That is why most bubble gum today is pink.Gilbert Mustin, President of Fleer named the gum Dubble Bubble and it controlled the bubble-gum market unchallenged for years, at least until Bazooka came along to share the wealth. Walter Diemer stayed with Fleer for decades, eventually becoming a senior vice president.
He never received royalties for his invention, his wife told the newspapers, but he didn't seem to mind; knowing what he'd created was reward enough. Sometimes he'd invite a bunch of kids to the house and tell them the story of his wonderful, accidental invention. Then he'd hold bubble-blowing contests for them.

Sunday, May 11, 2008


The earliest scissors of one metal was made in Egypt. Scissors of the kind used today are believed to have been first made in 1 A.D in Rome. Some historians believe that Leonardo da Vinci is the inventor, for he had used it for cutting canvas. Although this view has not been widely accepted, Da Vinci helped to spread the popularity of scissors. In 1761, Englishman Hinchliffe manufactured scissors from iron ore and sold it on a large scale.

Saturday, May 10, 2008


Austrian tailor, Josef Madersperger made several attempts at inventing a machine for sewing and was issued a patent in 1814. All of his attempts were considered unsuccessful.
In 1804, a French patent was granted to Thomas Stone and James Henderson for "a machine that emulated hand sewing." That same year a patent was granted to Scott John Duncan for an "embroidery machine with multiple needles." Both inventions failed and were soon forgotten by the public.
In 1818, the first American sewing machine was invented by John Adams Doge and John Knowles. Their machine failed to sew any useful amount of fabric before malfunctioning.
Barthelemy Thimonnier - First Functional Machine & a RiotThe first functional sewing machine was invented by the French tailor, Barthelemy Thimonnier, in 1830. Thimonnier's machine used only one thread and a hooked needle that made the same chain stitch used with embroidery. The inventor was almost killed by an enraged group of French tailors who burnt down his garment factory because they feared unemployment as a result of his new invention.
Walter Hunt & Elias HoweIn 1834, Walter Hunt built America's first (somewhat) successful sewing machine. He later lost interest in patenting because he believed his invention would cause unemployment. (Hunt's machine could only sew straight steams.) Hunt never patented and in 1846, the first American patent was issued to Elias Howe for "a process that used thread from two different sources."
Elias Howe's machine had a needle with an eye at the point. The needle was pushed through the cloth and created a loop on the other side; a shuttle on a track then slipped the second thread through the loop, creating what is called the lockstitch. However, Elias Howe later encountered problems defending his patent and marketing his invention.
For the next nine years Elias Howe struggled, first to enlist interest in his machine, then to protect his patent from imitators. His lockstitch mechanism was adopted by others who were developing innovations of their own. Isaac Singer invented the up-and-down motion mechanism, and Allen Wilson developed a rotary hook shuttle.
Isaac Singer Vs Elias Howe - Patent WarsSewing machines did not go into mass production until the 1850's, when Isaac Singer built the first commercially successful machine. Singer built the first sewing machine where the needle moved up and down rather than the side-to-side and the needle was powered by a foot treadle. Previous machines were all hand-cranked. However, Isaac Singer's machine used the same lockstitch that Howe had patented. Elias Howe sued Isaac Singer for patent infringement and won in 1854. Walter Hunt's sewing machine also used a lockstitch with two spools of thread and an eye-pointed needle; however, the courts upheld Howe's patent since Hunt had abandoned his patent.
If Hunt had patented his invention, Elias Howe would have lost his case and Isaac Singer would have won. Since he lost, Isaac Singer had to pay Elias Howe patent royalties. As a side note: In 1844, Englishmen John Fisher received a patent for a lace making machine that was identical enough to the machines made by Howe and Singer that if Fisher's patent had not been lost in the patent office, John Fisher would also have been part of the patent battle.
After successfully defending his right to a share in the profits of his invention, Elias Howe saw his annual income jump from three hundred to more than two hundred thousand dollars a year. Between 1854 and 1867, Howe earned close to two million dollars from his invention. During the Civil War, he donated a portion of his wealth to equip an infantry regiment for the Union Army and served in the regiment as a private.

The 1834 eye pointed needle sewing machine of Walter Hunt was later re-invented by Elias Howe of Spencer, Massachusetts and patented by him in 1846.
Each sewing machine (Walter Hunt's and Elias Howe's) had a curved eye pointed needle that passed the thread through the fabric in an arc motion; and on the other side of the fabric a loop was created; and a second thread carried by a shuttle running back and forth on a track passed through the loop creating a lockstitch.
Elias Howe's design was copied by Isaac Singer and others, leading to extensive patent litigation. However, a court battle in the 1850s conclusively gave Elias Howe the patent rights to the eye pointed needle.
The court case was brought by Elias Howe against Isaac Merritt Singer, the largest manufacturer of sewing machines for patent infringement.
In his defense, Isaac Singer attempted to invalidate Howe's patent, to show that the invention was already some 20 years old and that Howe should not have been able to claim the royalties from anyone using his designs that Singer had been forced to pay.
Since Walter Hunt had abandoned his sewing machine and had not filed for a patent, Elias Howe's patent was upheld by a court decision in 1854. Isaac Singer's machine was also somewhat different from Howe's. Its needle moved up and down, rather than sideways, and it was powered by a treadle rather than a hand crank. However, it used the same lockstitch process and a similar needle.
Elias Howe died in 1867, the year his patent expired.
Other Historical Moments in the History of the Sewing MachineOn June 2, 1857, James Gibbs patented the first chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
Zig-zag Stitch MachineHelen Augusta Blanchard of Portland, Maine (1840-1922) patented the first zig-zag stitch machine in 1873. The zig-zag stitch better seals the edges of a seam, making a garment sturdier. Helen Blanchard also patented 28 other inventions including a hat-sewing machine, surgical needles, and other improvements to sewing machines.
ElectricityBy 1905, the electrically powered sewing machine was in wide use.

Friday, May 9, 2008


In the Beginning
No other company in the world has more expertise with silicon carbide than Saint-Gobain. We invented it, developed numerous variations of it and make more of it for high-performance components than anyone else in the world.
It started about 100 years ago. A struggling scientist, once employed by Thomas Edison, dreamed of becoming wealthy. What better way to riches, he reasoned, than by making artificial diamonds?
The determined young man attached one lead from a dynamo to a discarded plumber's bowl, filled the bowl with clay and powdered coke, inserted the other lead into the mix and threw the switch. Nothing seemed to happen. He was disappointed until he noticed a few bright specks on the end of the leads. When he drew one lead across a pane of glass, it cut like a diamond.
This young scientist, Dr. Edward Goodrich Acheson, had invented silicon carbide (SiC), the first man-made abrasive and substance hard enough to cut glass. Acheson's discovery became Carborundum, the trademark for silicon carbide and the name given to the company he started.

Today Saint-Gobain has earned a reputation for providing advanced, high-tech ceramic components to worldwide markets. These markets span multiple industries, requiring materials that are resistant to extreme temperature, thermal shock, abrasion and corrosion.

Thursday, May 8, 2008


Joseph Bramah Stainborough, (1749 - 1814) Bristish Inventor. Mechanic by profession, made a large number of practical inventions: a security lock, a hydraulic press, the water- closet or toilet, a printer to number bank bills, etc.

Wednesday, May 7, 2008


The idea of putting wheels on shoes to create the first roller skate goes back to a London inventor in 1763. But it wasn’t until the 1860s that the introduction of skate wheels with separate fixed and moving axles and that remarkable Industrial age invention, ball bearings, made for a smoother ride. Soon, roller-skating was a popular pastime for Victorians. Figure roller-skating became fashionable in the 1920s flapper era and continued right up until the disco era as a fun thing for couples to do together, or as a chance to meet someone. Rollerblades, or inline skates, invented by two hockey-crazed Minnesota brothers in 1979, changed everything with their 4 or 5 wheels arranged in a line. Imitating ice skate blades, they revolutionized the sport and, as host Jeff Douglas finds, visiting experts and fans in Toronto, Mississauga, Thornhill, Cambridge, and Decatur and Stone Mountain, Georgia, have led to an explosion of skating sports and pastimes, including figure roller-skating and inline dancing, trick blade, in-line speed skating, inline hockey, and even the re-emergence of the women’s roller-derby.

Monday, May 5, 2008


Lithography: The Process
The following is an introduction to the process of making original, fine art lithographs and the methods used to care for them. Standards may vary at different workshops.
what is a lithograph? Basically, it is a print made by using a press to transfer an image that was created initially on stone or metal plate to paper.

Aloys Senefelder, who invented lithography in 1798, preferred to call it "chemical printing", since the process depends on the chemical interaction of grease, nitric acid, gum arabic, and water, rather than the stone from which the name lithography is derived.
Although the term can refer to commercially reproduced images, such as those on posters or in magazines, at Tamarind a lithograph is an image made by an artist who works closely with an artisan printer.

What 's the difference between a "print" and a fine art print? "Print" is the generic tem for an image produced in multiple. There are many different kinds of prints, including reproductions made from an image that already exists.
A truly "original" print, however, directly involves the artist, who uses the special qualities of the printmaking process--whether it is etching, engraving, serigraphy (or silk screen), woodcut, mezzotint, or lithography--to express his or her ideas.
Some artists print their images themselves. Others work collaboratively with a skilled printer, who discusses ideas and materials with the artist, and carries out all the technical requirements such as processing and printing.
In each case, what distinguishes the print as original is that the artist participated directly in the creation of the image and approves all impressions.

How does a lithograph differ from other fine art prints? Lithographs differ from etchings, engravings, serigraphs, and woodcuts in materials and process. As opposed to many other print processes which depend upon incised or carved lines, lithography is a planographic process that depends upon the mutual repulsion of grease and water.
For example, etchings and engravings are printed from a metal plate with incised lines while a lithograph is made from a chemically treated, flat surface. A serigraph is a silkscreen print, and woodcuts are printed from blocks of wood carved in relief.

How do you make a lithograph? To make a lithograph, the artist first draws an image, in reverse, on a fine-grained limestone or aluminum plate. For a one-color lithograph, this will be the only drawing. Each additional color will generally require a separate stone or plate.
Artists use the same kinds of tools they would for images on paper or canvas. However, since the basic principle of hand lithographic printing is the natural repulsion of grease and water, the crayons, pencils, and washes used in lithography have a high grease content.
Once the artist has finished drawing with the greasy black pigments, an artisan printer takes over and chemically treats the stones and/or plates to stabilize the image for printing.

Why don't the artists do the printing themselves? In general, although some artists print their own lithographs, many have neither the time nor inclination to learn about the complex chemistry of the medium.
At Tamarind, artists are free to concentrate on creating their images while collaborating printers attend to the technical requirements. Here, artists-in-residence work with highly skilled printers who have been trained in the technical and collaborative aspects of printing for artists. Often, artists rely on the printers' expertise to achieve their aesthetic goals.

How does the printing process work? After the artist has finished drawing on the plates or stones, the printer sprinkles rosin on the surface to protect the drawing. Then he or she powders the surface with talc which helps the chemical etch lie more closely to the tiny grease dots which compose the drawing.
The etch, which is a solution of gum arabic and nitric acid, is then applied to the stone and left for about an hour to combine with the greasy particles and the calcium carbonate of the stone.
The printer then removes the original drawing materials with a solvent, leaving the greasy image barely visible on the stone. The printing inks, which are also greasy, will adhere to the image area. The stone's surface is kept wet, which prevents the ink from adhering to non-image areas.
At the press, the printer sponges the stone or plate with water, rolls it with ink, and prints a series of "trial proofs": the same image with different color and paper combinations. When the artist is completely satisfied with the result, the final proof is signed by the artist as the bon à tirer ("good to pull"). With this as a standard, the printer is ready to pull the edition. At Tamarind, editions usually have fewer than thirty impressions.
Once the edition has been printed, the stone or plate is destroyed or erased, ensuring that no more impressions can be printed. The curator checks each impression against the bon à tirer, and the prints are embossed with Tamarind's chop (identifying symbol) and the collaborating printer's chop. Then the artist signs and numbers the impression.

What does "pull an impression" mean, and why do you refer to prints as "impressions"? To pull a print simply means to print an impression, and impression refers to any one of a number of nearly identical images pulled from the same printing elements.
in a multicolor print, how does the printer get the colors in exactly the right places? Generally the same piece of paper must pass through the press as many times as there are different colors. This process requires exact registration with each run, or pass, through the press.
Registration ensures that each color or component of an image is printed in exactly the nght area. The printer makes tiny pencil marks on each sheet of paper to be printed and lines them up to correspond with marks on each stone or plate. This way, each impression in the edition is consistent.

What is an "edition" of prints? Edition refers to all impressions of a particular image that are printed after the artist has given an approval to print. At Tamarind, the edition includes all numbered prints, the artist's proofs, the bon a tirer, which is given to the printer, and three impressions for the Tamarind archives. All impressions, including the trial proofs, color trial proofs, and artist's impressions, are documented.

What are artist's proofs? Artist's proofs (sometimes designated A.P.) are impressions just like those in the numbered edition. They are set aside for the artist's personal use. Tamarind limits the number of artist's proofs to a maximum of five or up to ten percent of the signed and numbered impressions.

Who determines how many prints will be made? Generally the artist and a printshop representative decide together before the edition is printed. At Tamarind, the number is rarely more than fifty numbered impressions and is often considerably smaller.
if all the prints in the edition are sold, do you print more? Never. After the artist signs and numbers each impression in the edition, all stones and plates are effaced. Stones are then resurfaced for future use.

Sunday, May 4, 2008



The Record Player
By Sam Schalman-Bergen
Before 1877, the only way to hear something was to listen by person. But in 1877, a new luxury was created. The record player was invented. It was invented by Thomas Edison in 1877. Edison invented it in West Orange, New Jersey at Menlo Park Labratories. The record is unlike the C.D. player, because it can not only play, but it can also record. The record player was a mouthpiece consisting of a stylus that was attached to a diaphragm. In order to record, the mouthpiece would be lowered onto the cylinder, covered with tinfoil. One would turn the cylinder with a handle and talk. The talking would cause vibration that pressed the stylus down to the foil. So, as the cylinder turned, it created a pattern, that when played, sounds like the recorder's voice. In order to play, one would put the stylus back to the beginning of the recording and turn the crank. The force of the stylus moving over the pattern caused the diaphragm to vibrate, which recreated the sound of a voice. In 1888, the record player was improved by Amiel Berliner. He changed he tinfoil that had the recording into a flat disk. Now, this one-time phonograph has been changed into a C.D. player. The record player was a huge success and it was all thanks to Thomas Edison.

10 Facts about the Record Player
Invented in 1877
Invented by Thomas Edison
Invented in Menlo Park Laboratories, in West Orange, NJ
It could record and play
The first recording, by Edison, was Mary Had a Little Lamb
Bet 2 dollars and a pack of cigarettes with the head of the machine shop, that the phonograph would work and it did
It consists of a grueled cylinder wrapped with tinfoil and a mouth piece consisting of a stylus attached to a diapragm
It was Edison's favorite invention
The sound waves would press down on the diapragm and stylus, causing vibration that pressed the stylus into the foil
To play back, all you had to do was put the stylus back at the beginning, and turn the crank All the information was taken from The Genious of Edison C.D. ROM

Saturday, May 3, 2008


In 1877, German immigrant, Emile Berliner invented the microphone. He sold his microphone patent for $50,000 to the Bell Telephone Company and later went on to co-invent the gramophone. Emile study physics at night during this time of invention. Berliner and Bell Telephone feuded over the actual inventor rights to the microphone.
Berliner's invention went on to set the wheels in motion for what we know now as the condenser microphone. A metal encased element that measures the pressure from voice signal and electronifies the sound as channels the signal into a PA (Public Address) system, thus the amplification of the vocalist or speaker.
Berliner later went shortly thereafter to co-invent the gramophone along with Thomas Edison. The gramophone would later evolve into what is now known as the record player. Berliner died in 1929.
Today the microphone in music is the voice of the band. The microphone has changed a lot over the past 120 plus years. It started the radio revolution and became a big success in mid 1950, as the radio was the main source of families' entertainment. Every lead singers microphone is an earpiece to their fans. With various new technologies and digital technologies effects to the voice can be created without the vocalist ever having to change their vocal pitch.
At Musiciansland, we carry a wide variety of microphones and hardware for the professional vocalist or budding musician. We have a wide selection of condenser mikes and microphone stands.
Behringer B1 Single Diaphragm Studio Condenser Microphone
Marshall Electronics V57M Studio Condenser Microphone
Shure SM58LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone
Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable)
RODE NT1A Studio Condenser Microphone with Shock Mount
Music People Tripod/Boom Microphone Stand
CBI LowZ Microphone Cable
Whirlwind MC20 XLR Microphone Cable (20 ft.)
AKG C535EB Premium Performance Microphone with K66 Headphones

Friday, May 2, 2008


The Space Shuttle was originally invented in America by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) in the 1970s. There is no definite creator of it since it was such a large project.

Thursday, May 1, 2008


The first safety razor was in fact invented in 1880's by the Kampfe Brothers. To the right is one of the Star razors produced by the Kampfe Brothers around 1903.